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Pomeranian - Small Breed Dog Profile

Updated: Apr 2

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The Pomeranian: A Small Breed with a Colourful History


Here at Mary Puppins luxury dog home boarding, we always love having Pomeranians to stay for their five star doggy holiday! They are a small breed dog with a lot of character.

The Pomeranian, a small and vivacious breed, is celebrated for its lively character, enchanting appearance, and intriguing history.

In this article, we will delve into the Pomeranian's origins, purpose, physical traits, personality, grooming and exercise requirements, age range, measurements, and health issues.

Origins of the Pomeranian


The Pomeranian hails from the Pomerania region, which straddles modern-day Poland and Germany.

They are descendants of large sledge-pulling dogs and were selectively bred down in size, resulting in the charming toy-sized Pomeranians we know today.

Purpose of the Pomeranian


Initially, Pomeranians were much more prominent and used as working dogs.

However, Queen Victoria's fascination with the breed in the 19th century contributed to their miniaturisation and popularity as companion animals.

Pomeranian Physical Characteristics


Pomeranians are small, fluffy dogs with a distinctive fox-like face.

Their double coat is plush and comes in various colours, including orange, cream, sable, black, blue, and more.

Their fluffy tails curl elegantly over their back.

Pomeranian Personality Traits


These small dogs are known for their vibrant and extroverted nature.

Pomeranians are intelligent and curious, making them quick to learn and eager to explore. They often have a fearless and confident disposition despite their small size.

Pomeranian Dog Grooming Requirements


Moderate dog grooming needs due to their fluffy double coat. Regular brushing is necessary.

Pomeranians require regular grooming to maintain their magnificent coat.

This grooming includes brushing to prevent matting and occasional trimming. Their thick coat acts as insulation; thus, it's imperative to keep them cool in hot weather.

Pomeranian Dog Walks and Exercise Requirements


Pomeranians have moderate exercise needs, including dog enrichment play and short dog walks.

Despite their small size, Pomeranians have high energy levels and need regular exercise.

They enjoy playtime, walks, and interactive toys to stimulate them mentally and physically.

Pomeranian Breed Characteristics


Pomeranians are lively, confident, and known for their fluffy ruff. Can be social with children and families.

Pomeranians are characterised by their lively, friendly, and affectionate nature.

They are often quite vocal, alerting their owners to potential threats or exciting environmental developments.

Pomeranian Lifespan and Age Range


Pomeranians typically live between 12 to 16 years. They are a little but active breed.

Pomeranian Measurements


Pomeranians typically measure: Height: 6-7 inches (15-18 cm); Weight: 3-7 pounds (1.4-3.2 kg).

Pomeranian Health Issues


While generally robust, Pomeranians can be susceptible to specific health problems.

Common issues include dental problems, patellar luxation, and tracheal collapse. It's crucial to monitor their dental health and ensure they don't put undue stress on their trachea.

faqs pomeranian dog

Frequently Asked Questions: Pomeranian Breed

If you are considering getting a Pomeranian, you might have questions about this adorable breed.

Here are some of the most common questions and answers about Pomeranians, their history, characteristics, and care.

What is the history of the Pomeranian breed?

The Pomeranian breed has a long and fascinating history that dates back to ancient times.

The Pomeranian is a descendant of spitz-type sled dogs from Iceland and Lapland (Finland), which were used for pulling sleds, guarding homes, and protecting livestock.

These dogs were large and powerful, resembling wolves in appearance.

Several hundred years ago, these dogs made their way to Pomerania, a region in north-west Poland and north-east Germany, where they were bred to a smaller size and became popular as companion dogs.

The name Pomeranian comes from this region, although it is not officially recognised as a country anymore.

Late in the eighteenth century, Queen Charlotte, the wife of King George III, brought the Pomeranian breed to England.

However, it was Queen Victoria, their granddaughter, who made the breed famous.

She fell in love with a small red Pomeranian named Marco and brought him back from Italy in 1888.

She became an avid breeder and exhibitor of Pomeranians, and her preference for smaller dogs influenced the breed standard.

During her lifetime, the size of the breed decreased by half.

The Pomeranian has become one of the most popular toys in the world since the American Kennel Club recognised the breed around 1900.

The Pomeranian is known for its lively personality, fluffy coat, and fox-like face.

Why are Pomeranians so small compared to their ancestors?

Pomeranians are small because they have been selectively bred to reduce their size over many generations.

This process is called miniaturisation and it involves choosing the smallest dogs from each litter and mating them with other small dogs.

This results in smaller offspring that inherit the genes for reduced size.

Miniaturisation can have some advantages, such as making dogs more suitable for urban living and easier to transport and care for.

However, it can also have some disadvantages, such as increasing the risk of health problems related to dwarfism, such as dental issues, bone deformities, and breathing difficulties.

How often should a Pomeranian be groomed?

Pomeranians feature thick double coats with rough outer coats and soft undercoats.

During the changing seasons, the coat sheds extensively twice a year in addition to modestly across the year.

Pomeranians must be brushed with a slicker brush and a metal comb at least twice a week to maintain the health of the coat and avoid matting.

Once a month, they should also take a bath with gentle shampoo and conditioner.

Pomeranians also need regular grooming of their nails, ears, eyes, and teeth.

Their nails should be trimmed every two to three weeks or whenever they start to click on the floor.

Their ears should be cleaned with a cotton ball dipped in ear cleanser and checked for infections or build up of wax once a week.

Their eyes should be wiped daily with a soft cloth or cotton pad to remove any discharge or tear stains.

Their teeth should be brushed daily with a dog toothpaste and toothbrush or dental wipes to prevent plaque and tartar build up.

What is the typical lifespan of a Pomeranian?

Pomeranians live between 12 and 16 years on average.

In contrast, certain Pomeranians may have longer or shorter lifetimes due to a range of factors, including as health problems, care, diet, activity level, and heredity.

Pomeranians can have a variety of health conditions, including luxating patella (slipping kneecap), tracheal collapse (narrowing of the windpipe), alopecia X (hair loss), hypoglycemia (low blood sugar), eye disorders (cataracts and progressive retinal atrophy), heart disorders (patent ductus arteriosus and mitral valve disease), and skin disorders (allergies.

To increase the chances of your Pomeranian living a long and healthy life, you should provide him with regular veterinary check ups, vaccinations, parasite prevention, spaying or neutering (if not used for breeding), superior cuisine suitable for his height and age, fresh water, adequate exercise, mental stimulation, socialisation, training, love, and attention.

Do Pomeranians make good family pets?

Pomeranians can make good family pets if they are well-socialised, trained, and supervised around children and other animals.

Pomeranians are loyal, lively, affectionate, observant, and inquisitive dogs that like spending time with their owners.

When treated with kindness and decency, older kids may be very good friends.

However, they may not be suitable for very young children or toddlers who may accidentally hurt them or provoke them to bite or snap.

Pomeranians can also get along with other dogs and cats if they are raised with them or introduced to them properly.

However, they might not be able to hunt small animals like rats or birds or play rough.

They may also get territorial and bark at strangers or strange noises.

They need early and ongoing socialisation and training to prevent them from becoming overly angry or loud.

What are the most common health concerns in Pomeranians?

Although Pomeranians are typically healthy dogs, they may be susceptible to certain health problems that affect petite breeds or spitz-type dogs in particular.

Among these health issues are:

Luxating patella

Pain and lameness are caused by the kneecap slipping out of position.

Trauma, congenital defects, or obesity are possible causes.

Physical therapy, surgery, or medication can all be used to treat it.

Tracheal collapse

This illness results in weakening and collapsing of the cartilage rings supporting the windpipe, which can cause breathing difficulties, coughing, choking, and fainting.

Genetics, trauma, illness, obesity, and stress are some of the possible causes.

Medication, surgery, or lifestyle modifications are possible forms of treatment.

Alopecia X

This illness results in bald spots or total hair loss because the hair follicles cease to grow hair.

Hormones, genetics, or other unidentified variables may be the reason.

The dog's health is unaffected, however it can affect its appearance and comfort. It can be treated with medication, supplements, or shaving.

Eye problems

Pomeranians can suffer a variety of eye disorders, such as cataracts (clouding of the lens), ectropion (rolling of the eyelid outward), progressive retinal atrophy (degeneration of the retina), and entropion (rolled inward) distichiasis (extra eyelashes), dry eye (lack of tear production), cherry eye (prolapse of the third eyelid gland), and corneal ulcers (scratches on the surface of the eye).

These problems can cause irritation, inflammation, infection, blindness, or loss of the eye. Medication can be used to diagnose and treat them.

Pomeranians can be affected by a number of heart conditions, such as patent ductus arteriosus (a congenital defect where a blood vessel that connects both the pulmonary artery and the aorta are not closed following delivery), mitral valve disease (a degeneration of the valve that separates the left atrium and ventricle), and congestive heart failure (The heart's incapacity to pump enough blood to suit the body's requirements).

These conditions can include coughing, dyspnea, fatigue, fainting, fluid accumulation in the abdomen or lungs, and sudden death.

Medication, surgery, or dietary modifications can be used to diagnose and treat them.

How much exercise do Pomeranians need daily?

Pomeranians are active and energetic dogs that need moderate exercise for them to stay healthy and happy.

However, they do not need a lot of exercise compared to larger breeds. A 20 to 30-minute walk or play session per day is usually enough for most Pomeranians.

They also enjoy indoor activities such as fetching toys, chasing balls, playing tug-of-war, doing tricks, or learning new skills.

Pomeranians should not be over-exercised or exposed to extreme heat or cold.

Their short snout and thick hair make them prone to overheating.

They are also sensitive to cold due to their small size and thin skin.

They should always have access to fresh water and shade when outdoors and wear a sweater or coat when it is cold.

Pomeranians are wonderful dogs that have a lot to offer to their owners.

Make sure you do your homework and locate a reliable breeder who can deliver you a healthy and well-socialised puppy if you're interested in acquiring a Pomeranian.

Additionally, you should be ready to provide your Pomeranian the love, affection, grooming, socialisation, training, and exercise it needs for the duration of its life.

Final Thoughts


In conclusion, the Pomeranian is a lively and charming breed with a rich history that has evolved from working dogs to cherished companions.

Their vibrant personality, exquisite appearance, and manageable size make them a delightful addition to many households.

Just be prepared to give them the care, attention, and exercise they deserve, and you'll have a spirited and loving friend by your side for years to come.

Disclaimer: This article is intended for educational and informational purposes only. It is not intended as a substitute for veterinary advice. For specific veterinary dog health advice, contact a veterinary pet healthcare provider.

BOOK your little one's place with Mary Puppins now. Give them the 5* VIP doggy holiday they deserve, while you enjoy yours.

With limited places, we get booked up super fast.

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Kate Phillips, Chief Editor

BSc (Hons), MSc

Kate is the UK's very own Mary Puppins, a professional Dog Nanny, an expert in small breed dogs and a pet parent to her own beloved small dogs.

With over 30 years' experience and successfully helping high profile celebrity pet parents raise their furry families,

Kate shares her top tips with you.

Kate guides readers on small dog breeds, dog health, dog training, dog nutrition, dog food, dog walks, dog accessories, dog enrichment, rescue dogs, dog behaviour, dog grooming and the best products for dog mums and dog dads to create the ultimate lifestyle for their small dogs.



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